Raj is a Developer Advocate and Geo specialist at IBM. He specializes in all things geospatial, hacking on analytics in Jupyter notebooks and building software in NodeJS, Python, Java and PHP. He's currently driven to make IBM the best place to obtain and exploit comprehensive, curated open data sets for business. Raj pioneered Web mapping-as-a-service in the late 1990s with Syncline, a startup he co-founded. After that he finished his PhD in Urban Planning at MIT in 2004, exploring the potential of web services to power urban information systems. Prior to joining IBM in 2014, Raj worked on geospatial data interoperability challenges for the Open Geospatial Consortium, working with most of the major defense, environmental and space agencies and international NGOs. He's a frequent speaker on interoperability and geo-location services. He contributed to O'Reilly's 2005 book, "Mapping Hacks" and wrote the chapter on standards for points of interest data in the recently published, “Placing Names: Enriching and Integrating Gazetteers”.